Act of searching through information system storage to locate or acquire information, without necessarily knowing the existence or format of information being sought. The searching of computer storage to locate or acquire information, without necessarily knowing whether it exists or in what format.

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A form of dumpster diving performed electronically. Online scavenging searches for useful information in the remnants of data left over after processes or tasks are completed. This could include audit trails, log files, memory dumps, variable settings, port mappings, cached data, and so on. Searching through object residue to acquire data. The searching of residue for the purpose of unauthorized data acquisition.
The Counterfeit Access Device and Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 outlaws unauthorized access to the federal government’s computers and financial databases as protected under the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 and the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1971. This Act is an amendation of the 1984 Federal Computer Fraud Act.
The term “computer forensics” was coined in 1991 in the first training session held by the International Association of Computer Specialists (IACIS) in Portland, Oregon. Since then, computer forensics has become a popular topic in computer security circles and in the legal community. Like any other forensic science, computer forensics deals with the application of law to a science. In this case, the science involved is computer science and some refer to it as Forensic Computer Science. Computer forensics has also been described as the autopsy of a computer hard disk drive because specialized software tools and techniques are required to analyze the various levels at which computer data is stored after the fact. Computer forensics deals with the preservation, identification, extraction, and documentation of computer evidence. The field is relatively new to the private sector, but it has been the mainstay of technologyrelated investigations and intelligence gathering in law enforcement and military agencies since the mid1980s. Like any other forensic science, computer forensics involves the use of sophisticated technology tools and procedures that must be followed to guarantee the accuracy of the preservation of evidence and the accuracy of results concerning computer evidence processing. Typically, computer forensic tools exist in the form of computer software.
A form of testing that attempts to verify that a system satisfies the stated criteria for functionality and possibly also for security capabilities of a product. It is used to determine whether end users or customers will accept the completed product. The formal testing conducted to determine whether a software system satisfies its acceptance criteria, enabling the customer to determine whether to accept the system.
The malicious act of gathering proprietary, secret, private, sensitive, or confidential information about an organization for the express purpose of disclosing and often selling that data to a competitor or other interested organization (such as a foreign government). The practice or employment of spies; the practice of watching the words and conduct of others, to make discoveries, as spies or secret emissaries; secret watching. This category of computer crime includes international spies and their contractors who steal secrets from defense, academic, and laboratory research facility computer systems. It includes criminals who steal information and intelligence from law enforcement computers, and industrial espionage agents who operate for competitive companies or for foreign governments who are willing to pay for the information. What has generally been known as industrial espionage is now being called competitive intelligence. A lot of information can be gained through “open source” collection and analysis without ever having to break into a competitor’s computer. This information gathering is also competitive intelligence, although it is not as ethically questionable as other techniques.

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