Access Control List (ACL)

An access control list is the usual means by which access to, and denial of, service is controlled. It is simply a list of the services available, each with a list of the hosts permitted to use the services. Most network security systems operate by allowing selective use of services. Mechanism implementing discretionary and/or mandatory access control between subjects and objects. The column of an access control matrix that specifies what level of access each subject has over an object.


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<strong>Maturity Level Details:</strong><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Maturity levels consist of a predefined set of process areas. The maturity levels are measured by the achievement of the&nbsp;specific&nbsp;and&nbsp;generic goals&nbsp;that apply to each predefined set of process areas. The following sections describe the characteristics of each maturity level in detail.</p><strong>Maturity Level 1 - Initial</strong><br>At maturity level 1, processes are usually ad hoc and chaotic. The organization usually does not provide a stable environment. Success in these organizations depends on the competence and heroics of the people in the organization and not on the use of proven processes.<p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Maturity level 1 organizations often produce products and services that work; however, they frequently exceed the budget and schedule of their projects.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Maturity level 1 organizations are characterized by a tendency to over commit, abandon processes in the time of crisis, and not be able to repeat their past successes.</p><strong>Maturity Level 2 - Managed</strong><br>At maturity level 2, an organization has achieved all the&nbsp;specific&nbsp;and&nbsp;generic goals&nbsp;of the maturity level 2 process areas. In other words, the projects of the organization have ensured that requirements are managed and that processes are planned, performed, measured, and controlled.<p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">The process discipline reflected by maturity level 2 helps to ensure that existing practices are retained during times of stress. When these practices are in place, projects are performed and managed according to their documented plans.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">At maturity level 2, requirements, processes, work products, and services are managed. The status of the work products and the delivery of services are visible to management at defined points.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Commitments are established among relevant stakeholders and are revised as needed. Work products are reviewed with stakeholders and are controlled.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">The work products and services satisfy their specified requirements, standards, and objectives.</p><strong>Maturity Level 3 - Defined</strong><br>At maturity level 3, an organization has achieved all the&nbsp;specific&nbsp;and&nbsp;generic goals&nbsp;of the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3.<p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">At maturity level 3, processes are well characterized and understood, and are described in standards, procedures, tools, and methods.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">A critical distinction between maturity level 2 and maturity level 3 is the scope of standards, process descriptions, and procedures. At maturity level 2, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures may be quite different in each specific instance of the process (for example, on a particular project). At maturity level 3, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures for a project are tailored from the organization's set of standard processes to suit a particular project or organizational unit. The organization's set of standard processes includes the processes addressed at maturity level 2 and maturity level 3. As a result, the processes that are performed across the organization are consistent except for the differences allowed by the tailoring guidelines.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Another critical distinction is that at maturity level 3, processes are typically described in more detail and more rigorously than at maturity level 2. At maturity level 3, processes are managed more proactively using an understanding of the interrelationships of the process activities and detailed measures of the process, its work products, and its services.</p><strong>Maturity Level 4 - Quantitatively Managed</strong><br>At maturity level 4, an organization has achieved all the&nbsp;specific goals&nbsp;of the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2, 3, and 4 and the&nbsp;generic goals&nbsp;assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3.<p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">At maturity level 4 Subprocesses are selected that significantly contribute to overall process performance. These selected subprocesses are controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Quantitative objectives for quality and process performance are established and used as criteria in managing processes. Quantitative objectives are based on the needs of the customer, end users, organization, and process implementers. Quality and process performance are understood in statistical terms and are managed throughout the life of the processes.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">For these processes, detailed measures of process performance are collected and statistically analyzed. Special causes of process variation are identified and, where appropriate, the sources of special causes are corrected to prevent future occurrences.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Quality and process performance measures are incorporated into the organization.s measurement repository to support fact-based decision making in the future.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">A critical distinction between maturity level 3 and maturity level 4 is the predictability of process performance. At maturity level 4, the performance of processes is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques, and is quantitatively predictable. At maturity level 3, processes are only qualitatively predictable.</p><strong>Maturity Level 5 - Optimizing</strong><br>At maturity level 5, an organization has achieved all the&nbsp;specific goals&nbsp;of the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2, 3, 4, and 5 and the&nbsp;generic goals&nbsp;assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3.<p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Processes are continually improved based on a quantitative understanding of the common causes of variation inherent in processes.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Maturity level 5 focuses on continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative technological improvements.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Quantitative process-improvement objectives for the organization are established, continually revised to reflect changing business objectives, and used as criteria in managing process improvement.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">The effects of deployed process improvements are measured and evaluated against the quantitative process-improvement objectives. Both the defined processes and the organization's set of standard processes are targets of measurable improvement activities.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Optimizing processes that are agile and innovative depends on the participation of an empowered workforce aligned with the business values and objectives of the organization. The organization's ability to rapidly respond to changes and opportunities is enhanced by finding ways to accelerate and share learning. Improvement of the processes is inherently part of everybody's role, resulting in a cycle of continual improvement.</p><p style="margin: 0.8em 0px 1em; padding: 0px; text-align: justify; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">A critical distinction between maturity level 4 and maturity level 5 is the type of process variation addressed. At maturity level 4, processes are concerned with addressing special causes of process variation and providing statistical predictability of the results. Though processes may produce predictable results, the results may be insufficient to achieve the established objectives. At maturity level 5, processes are concerned with addressing common causes of process variation and changing the process (that is, shifting the mean of the process performance) to improve process performance (while maintaining statistical predictability) to achieve the established quantitative process-improvement objectives.</p>
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<p>FIPS 140-2, Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules, May 2001.</p><p>This term refers to the accreditation used to distinguish between secure and well-established crypto modules produced in the private sector. It stands as a certification for those producers who need them to be used in regulated industries that typically collect, store, transfer, and share data that is deemed to be sensitive in nature but not classified.<br></p><p>FIPS 140-2 defines four levels of security, simply named "Level 1" to "Level 4". It does not specify in detail what level of security is required by any particular application.</p><p>Level 1<br>Security Level 1 provides the lowest level of security. Basic security requirements are specified for a cryptographic module (e.g., at least one Approved algorithm or Approved security function shall be used). No specific physical security mechanisms are required in a Security Level 1 cryptographic module beyond the basic requirement for production-grade components. An example of a Security Level 1 cryptographic module is a personal computer (PC) encryption board.</p><p>Level 2<br>Security Level 2 improves upon the physical security mechanisms of a Security Level 1 cryptographic module by requiring features that show evidence of tampering, including tamper-evident coatings or seals that must be broken to attain physical access to the plaintext cryptographic keys and critical security parameters (CSPs) within the module, or pick-resistant locks on covers or doors to protect against unauthorized physical access.</p><p>Level 3<br>In addition to the tamper-evident physical security mechanisms required at Security Level 2, Security Level 3 attempts to prevent the intruder from gaining access to CSPs held within the cryptographic module. Physical security mechanisms required at Security Level 3 are intended to have a high probability of detecting and responding to attempts at physical access, use or modification of the cryptographic module. The physical security mechanisms may include the use of strong enclosures and tamper-detection/response circuitry that zeroes all plaintext CSPs when the removable covers/doors of the cryptographic module are opened</p><p>Level 4<br>Security Level 4 provides the highest level of security. At this security level, the physical security mechanisms provide a complete envelope of protection around the cryptographic module with the intent of detecting and responding to all unauthorized attempts at physical access. Penetration of the cryptographic module enclosure from any direction has a very high probability of being detected, resulting in the immediate deletion of all plaintext CSPs.<br>Security Level 4 cryptographic modules are useful for operation in physically unprotected environments. Security Level 4 also protects a cryptographic module against a security compromise due to environmental conditions or fluctuations outside of the module's normal operating ranges for voltage and temperature. Intentional excursions beyond the normal operating ranges may be used by an attacker to thwart a cryptographic module's defenses. A cryptographic module is required to either include special environmental protection features designed to detect fluctuations and delete CSPs, or to undergo rigorous environmental failure testing to provide a reasonable assurance that the module will not be affected by fluctuations outside of the normal operating range in a manner that can compromise the security of the module.</p>
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MAC is a means of restricting access to data based on varying degrees of security requirements for information contained in the objects. A policybased means of restricting access to objects based on the sensitivity (as represented by a label) of the information contained in the objects and the formal authorization (access control privileges) of subjects to access information of such sensitivity. Means of restricting access to objects based on the sensitivity of the information contained in the objects and the formal authorization (i. e. , clearance, formal access approvals, and needtoknow) of subjects to access information of such sensitivity. (. See discretionary access control. )
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A means of restricting access to objects based on the identity of subjects and groups to which they belong. The controls are discretionary in the sense that a subject with certain access permission is capable of passing that permission on to another subject. Means of restricting access to objects based on the (DAC) identity and needtoknow of users and/or groups to which the object belongs. Controls are discretionary in the sense that a subject with a certain access permission is capable of passing that permission (directly or indirectly) to any other subject. (. See mandatory access control. )
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A table of subjects and objects that indicates the actions or functions that each subject can perform on each object. Each column of the matrix is an ACL. Each row of the matrix is a capability list.
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