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Acknowledgement. A packet message used in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to acknowledge receipt of a packetAcknowledgment. A type of message sent to indicate that a block of data arrived at its destination without error. A negative acknowledgment is called a “NAK. ”.

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A set of communications protocols that encompasses media access, packet transport, session communications, file transfer, electronic mail, terminal emulation, remote file access, and network management. TCP/IP provides the basis for the Internet. The structure of TCP/IP is as follows: Process layer clients: FTP, Telnet, SMTP, NFS, DNS; Transport layer service providers: TCP (FTP, Telnet, SMTP), UDP (NFS, DNS); Network layer: IP (TCP, UDP); and Access layer: Ethernet (IP), Token ring (IP).
Response sent from a receiving device to a sending device indicating that the information received contained errors. Compare with acknowledgment.
A piece of a packet. When a router is forwarding an IP packet to a network with a Maximum Transmission Unit smaller than the packet size, it is forced to break up that packet into multiple fragments. These fragments will be reassembled by the IP layer at the destination host. When a network receives a packet larger than its maximum allowable packet size, it breaks it up into two or more fragments. These fragments are each assigned a size (corresponding to the length of the fragment) and an offset (corresponding to the starting location of the fragment).
Unicast: Packet is sent from a single source to a single destination. Broadcast: Source packet is copied and sent to all the nodes on a network. Multicast: Source packet is copied and then sent to multiple destinations on a network.
A computed value that depends on the contents of a packet. This value is sent along with the packet when it is transmitted. The receiving system computes a new checksum based on receiving data and compares this value with the one sent with the packet. If the two values are the same, the receiver has a high degree of confidence that the data was received correctly. Value computed on data to detect error or manipulation during transmission. (. See hash total. )

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