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A networking device that connects networks that are using different network protocols. A product that enables two dissimilar networks to communicate or interface with each other. In the IP community, an older term referring to a routing device. Today, the term “router” is used to describe nodes that perform this function, and “gateway” refers to a specialpurpose device that performs an application layer conversion of information from one protocol stack to another. Compare with router. Interface providing a compatibility between networks by converting transmission speeds, protocols, codes, or security measures.

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(1) Layer 2 of the OSI Reference Model. Provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. The datalink layer is concerned with physical addressing, network topology, line discipline, error notification, ordered delivery of frames, and flow control. The IEEE divided this layer into two sublayers: the MAC sublayer and the LLC sublayer. Sometimes simply called the link layer. Roughly corresponds to the datalink control layer of the SNA model. (2) A layer with the responsibility of transmitting data reliably across a physical link (cabling, for example) using a networking technology such as Ethernet. The DLL encapsulates data into frames (or cells) before it transmits it. It also enables multiple computer systems to share a single physical medium when used in conjunction with a media access control methodology such as CSMA/CD.
A machine that connects two or more email systems (especially dissimilar mail systems on two different networks) and transfers messages between them. Sometimes the mapping and translation can be quite complex, and generally it requires a storeandforward scheme whereby the message is received from one system completely before it is transmitted to the next system after suitable translations.
Non-IP protocols are protocols that serve as an alternative to IP at the OSI Network layer (3). In the past, non-IP protocols were widely used. However, with the dominance and success of TCP/IP, non-IP protocols have become the purview of special- purpose networks. The three most recognized non-IP protocols are IPX, AppleTalk, and NetBEUI.
(1) A system responsible for making decisions about which of several paths network (or Internet) traffic will follow. To do this, it uses aA network device used to control traffic flow on networks. Routers are often used to connect similar networks together and control traffic flow between them. They can function using statically defined routing tables or employ a dynamic routing system.
The emerging layer 3 switching technology integrates routing with switching to yield very high routing throughput rates in the millionsofpacketspersecond range. The movement to layer 3 switching is designed to address the downsides of the current generation of layer 2 switches, which are functionally equivalent to bridges. These downsides for a large, flat network include being subject to broadcast storms, spanning tree loops, and address limitations that drove the injection of routers into bridged networks in the late 1980s. Currently, layer 3 switching is represented by a number of approaches in the industry.

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