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Static Packet-Filtering Firewall

A firewall that filters traffic by examining data from a message header. Usually the rules are concerned with source, destination, and port addresses. Static packet-filtering firewalls as known as first-generation firewalls.

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A firewall that enables real-time modification of the filtering rules based on traffic content. Dynamic packet-filtering firewalls are known as fourth-generation firewalls.
A firewall that evaluates the state or the context of network traffic. By examining source and destination address, application usage, source of origin, and relationship between current packets with the previous packets of the same session, stateful inspection firewalls are able to grant a broader range of access for authorized users and activities and actively watch for and block unauthorized users and activities. Stateful inspection firewalls are known as third-generation firewalls.
A mechanical, electrical, or electronic device that opens or closes circuits, completes or breaks an electrical path, or selects paths or circuits. A switch looks at incoming data to determine the destination address. Based on that address, a transmission path is set up through the switching matrix between the incoming and outgoing physical communications ports and links. A network device that is an intelligent hub because it knows the addresses of the systems connected on each outbound port. Instead of repeating traffic on every outbound port, a switch repeats only traffic out of the port on which the destination is known to exist. Switches offer greater efficiency for traffic delivery, create separate broadcast and collision domains, and improve the overall throughput of data.
A firewall that filters traffic based on the Internet service (in other words, application) used to transmit or receive the data. Application-level gateways are known as second-generation firewalls.
A firewall that is integrated into an operating system’s core to provide multiple levels of session and packet evaluation. Kernel proxy firewalls are known as fifth-generation firewalls.

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