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Anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

A method for downloading public files using the File Transfer Protocol. Anonymous FTP is called anonymous because users do not provide credentials before accessing files from a particular server. In general, users enter the word “anonymous” when the host prompts for a username; anything can be entered for the password, such as the user’s email address or simply the word “guest. ” In many cases, an anonymous FTP site will not even prompt for a name and password.

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A temporary storage area, usually in RAM. The purpose of most buffers is to act as a holding area, enabling the CPU to manipulate data before transferring it to a device. Because the processes of reading and writing data to a disk are relatively slow, many programs keep track of data changes in a buffer and then copy the buffer to a disk. For example, word processors employ a buffer to keep track of changes to files. Then when you save the file, the word processor updates the disk file with the contents of the buffer. This is much more efficient than accessing the file on the disk each time you make a change to the file. Note that because your changes are initially stored in a buffer, not on the disk, all of them will be lost if the computer fails during an editing session. For this reason, it is a good idea to save your file periodically. Most word processors automatically save files at regular intervals. Another common use of buffers is for printing documents. When you enter a PRINT command, the operating system copies your document to a print buffer (a free area in memory or on a disk) from which the printer can draw characters at its own pace. This frees the computer to perform other tasks while the printer is running in the background. Print buffering is called spooling. Most keyboard drivers also contain a buffer so that you can edit typing mistakes before sending your command to a program. Many operating systems, including DOS, also use a disk buffer to temporarily hold data that they have read from a disk. The disk buffer is really a cache.
A method of accessing electronic mail or bulletin board messages that are kept on a (possibly shared) mail server. IMAP permits a “client” email program to access remote message stores as if they were local. For example, email stored on an IMAP server can be manipulated from a desktop computer at home, a workstation at the office, and a notebook computer while traveling, without the need to transfer messages of files back and forth between these computers. IMAP can be regarded as the nextgeneration POP. A protocol used to transfer email messages from an email server to an email client.
A solution that provides a storage space for users to keep their credentials when single sign on (SSO) isn’t available. Users can store credentials for websites and network resources that require a different set of credentials. The management system secures the credentials with encryption to prevent unauthorized access.
A bit mask used to identify which bits in an IP address correspond to the network address and subnet portions of the address. This mask is often referred to as the subnet mask because the network portion of the address can be determined by the class inherent in an IP address. The address mask has ones (1) in positions corresponding to the network and subnet numbers and zeros (0) in the host number positions.
A number known as a message digest generated from a hash function. Also . See hash function. Producing hash values for accessing data or for security. A hash value (or simply hash), also called a message digest, is a number generated from a string of text. The hash is substantially smaller than the text itself, and is generated by a formula in such a way that it is extremely unlikely that some other text will produce the same hash value. Hashing is also a common method of accessing data records. To create an index, called a hash table, for these records, you would apply a formula to each name to produce a unique numeric value.

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