The decrease in power of a signal, light beam, or light wave, either absolutely or as a fraction of a reference value. The decrease usually occurs as a result of absorption, reflection, diffusion, scattering, deflection, or dispersion from an original level and usually not as a result of geometric spreading. The loss of signal strength and integrity on a cable because of the length of the cable.
A characteristic defined for a class. Attributes are used to maintain the state of the object of a class. Values can be connected to objects via the attributes of the class. Typically, the connected value is determined by an operation with a single parameter identifying the object. Attributes implement the properties of a type. A column within a table of a relational database.
An independent review and examination of system records and activities that test for the adequacy of system controls, ensure compliance with established policy and operational procedures, and recommend any indicated changes in controls, policy, and procedures. Independent review and examination of records and activities to assess the adequacy of system controls, to ensure compliance with established policies and operational procedures, and to recommend necessary changes in controls, policies, or procedures.
A chronological record of system activities that is sufficient to enable the reconstruction, review, and examination of each event in a transaction from inception to output of final results. Chronological record of system activities to enable the reconstruction and examination of the sequence of events and/or changes in an event. The records created by recording information about events and occurrences into a database or log file. Some common uses of audit trails include reconstructing an event, extracting information about an incident, and proving or disproving culpability.
To verify the identity of a user, user device, or other entity, or the integrity of data stored, transmitted, or otherwise exposed to possible unauthorized modification in an automated information system, or establish the validity of a transmitted message. To verify the identity of a user, user device, or other entity, or the integrity of data stored, transmitted, or otherwise exposed to unauthorized modification in an information system, or to establish the validity of a transmission.
Security measure designed to establish the validity of a transmission, message, or originator, or a means of verifying an individual's authorization to receive specific categories of information. The act of identifying or verifying the eligibility of a station, originator, or individual to access specific categories of information. Typically, a measure designed to protect against fraudulent transmissions by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, station, or originator. The process of verifying or testing that the identity claimed by a subject is valid.
A process that ensures that the requested activity or object access is possible given the rights and privileges assigned to the authenticated identity (in other words, subject). Access privileges granted to a user, program, or process. The granting of right of access to a user, program, or process.
“Ensuring timely and reliable access and use of information. ” (44 USC Sec. 3542)The assurance that authorized subjects are granted timely and uninterrupted access to objects. The property of being accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized entity.
A form of security teaching that is a prerequisite to training. The goal of awareness is to bring security into the forefront and make it a recognized entity for students/users. Awareness programs set the stage for training by changing organizational attitudes toward realization of the importance of security and the adverse consequences of its failure. [NIST SP 80018].
A communication medium that supports only a single communication signal at a time. A form of modulation in which data signals are pulsed directly on the transmission medium without frequency division and usually utilize a transceiver. In baseband, the entire bandwidth of the transmission medium (cable) is utilized for a single channel. It uses a single carrier