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LAN switch

Highspeed switch that forwards packets between datalink segments. Most LAN switches forward traffic based on MAC addresses. This variety of LAN switch is sometimes called a frame switch. LAN switches are often categorized according to the method they use to forward traffic: cutthrough packet switching or storeandforward packet switching. Multilayer switches are an intelligent subset of LAN switches. Compare with multilayer switch. See also cutthrough packet switching, storeandforward packet switching.

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Pronounced cash, a special highspeed storage mechanism. It can be either a reserved section of main memory or an independent highspeed storage device. Two types of caching are commonly used in personal computers: memory caching and disk caching. A memory cache, sometimes called a cache store or RAM cache, is a portion of memory made of highspeed static RAM (SRAM) instead of the slower and cheaper dynamic RAM (DRAM) used for main memory. Memory caching is effective because most programs access the same data or instructions over and over. Disk caching works under the same principle as memory caching, but instead of using highspeed SRAM, a disk cache uses conventional main memory. When data is found in the cache, it is called a cache hit, and the effectiveness of a cache is judged by its hit rate.
A mechanical, electrical, or electronic device that opens or closes circuits, completes or breaks an electrical path, or selects paths or circuits. A switch looks at incoming data to determine the destination address. Based on that address, a transmission path is set up through the switching matrix between the incoming and outgoing physical communications ports and links. A network device that is an intelligent hub because it knows the addresses of the systems connected on each outbound port. Instead of repeating traffic on every outbound port, a switch repeats only traffic out of the port on which the destination is known to exist. Switches offer greater efficiency for traffic delivery, create separate broadcast and collision domains, and improve the overall throughput of data.
Standardized datalink layer address ingrained into a NIC that is required for every port or device that connects to a LAN. Other devices in the network use these addresses to locate specific ports in the network and to create and update routing tables and data structures. MAC addresses are 6 bytes long and are controlled by the IEEE. Also known as
A logical network segmentation implemented on switches and bridges to manage traffic. Multiple VLANs can be hosted on the same switch but are isolated as if they are separate physical networks. Only through a routing function, often provided by a multilayer switch, can cross-VLAN communications occur. VLANs function like physical network segments. Virtual Local Area NetworkVirtual local area network.
ATM is a highbandwidth, lowdelay switching and multiplexing technology. It is a datalink layer protocol. This means that it is a protocolindependent transport mechanism. ATM allows very highspeed data transfer rates at up to 155 Mbps. Data is transmitted in the form of 53byte units called cells. Each cell consists of a 5byte header and a 48byte payload. The term “asynchronous” in this context refers to the fact that cells from any one particular source need not be periodically spaced within the overall cell stream. That is, users are not assigned a set position in a recurring frame as is common in circuit switching. ATM can transport audio/video/data over the same connection at the same time and provide QoS (Quality of Service) for this transport.

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